Prague

Prague
Praha
Capital city
Hlavní město Praha
Montage of Prague, clockwise from top: Panorama of Prague Castle and Charles Bridge, Dancing House, Star Villa, Old Town Square, Wenceslas Square, Wallenstein Palace, Royal Garden at Prague Castle, St. Vitus Cathedral and Municipal House.
Montage of Prague, clockwise from top: Panorama of Prague Castle and Charles Bridge, Dancing House, Star Villa, Old Town Square, Wenceslas Square, Wallenstein Palace, Royal Garden at Prague Castle, St. Vitus Cathedral and Municipal House.
Flag of Prague
Flag
Coat of arms of Prague
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): City of a Hundred Spires,
Praga Mater Urbium[source?
]
(Prague, Mother of Cities; Latin)
Motto(s): [Praga Caput Rei publicae] error: : text has italic markup (help)[source?]
(Prague, Head of the Republic; Latin)
Location of Prague
Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083; 14.417
Country Czech Republic
Foundedc. 885
Government
 • MayorAdriana Krnáčová (ANO)
Area[1]
 • Urban496 km2 (192 sq mi)
Highest elevation399 m (1,309 ft)
Lowest elevation177 m (581 ft)
Population (2015-12-31)[3]
 • Capital city1,391,508
 • Metro2,156,097 [2]
Demonym(s)Praguer
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code100 00 – 199 00
Vehicle registrationA
NUTS code2012
 - Total€40 billion
 - Per capita€32,000([1])
Websitepraha.eu
Statistics statnisprava.cz
Prague

Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and the largest city of the Czech Republic. It has a population of 1.4 million.

Prague has been known as one of the most beautiful European cities since the Middle Ages. Often called the "City of 100 Towers", the "Rooftop of Europe" or the "Heart of Europe", Prague was a place where many merchants, artists and inventors met.

Prague is full of historical monuments in all major artistic styles. The historical center of Prague is situated on both banks of the Vltava river. This historical center has six districts, which were once independent cities that joined together in the 18th century. These districts are Staré Město (Old Town), Pražský hrad (Prague castle), Josefov (Old Jewish Town), Nové Město (New Town), Malá Strana (Lesser Town), Hradčany (Prague Castle Quarter) and Vyšehrad. It was Prince Bořivoj who established Prague Castle. There are also lots of museums, galleries, theaters, concert halls, and other historical buildings.

History

The earliest inhabitants of the area that we know about lived in the valley of the Vltava river around 500 BC. Slavonic tribes came to Bohemia in about 500 AD. There is a legend about how the town of Prague started. Princess Libuše, the leader of a Slavonic tribe, chose a simple peasant Přemysl to be her husband. She told him to go and find a village on the banks of the Vltava and to start a town there. The town became Prague, ruled by the Přemyslid family.

In the second half of the 9th century the castle’s original fortifications were built. During the reign of Wenceslas I (Václav in Czech) in the 10th century the church of St Vitus was built at Prague castle. Wenceslas was murdered by his brother when he was going to church. He was later made a saint. In the early 11th century the Přemyslid family got power in Moravia, too. Vratislav II was the first monarch to be called King of Bohemia.

Another ruler, also called Wenceslas I, ruled as King of Bohemia from 1230. He encouraged the arts. A lot of Germans came to live in Prague. In 1257 King Otakar II founded the area of Prague called the Lesser Quarter for the Germans to live in. The last of the Přemyslid kings was King Wenceslas III. He was murdered in Moravia.

During the Middle Ages Prague became very important as the capital of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by Charles IV (1316-1378) who was the most powerful ruler in Europe at the time. Charles made Prague a great city, building St Vitus Cathedral, a university, and a famous bridge called Charles Bridge which still exists.

After Charles IV there were many arguments and fights in Prague. A priest called Jan Hus said that the Catholic Church had become too powerful. He was arrested and burned at the stake in 1415. A lot of people agreed with what Hus had been saying. These people were called Hussites. They threw a lot of important Catholic people out of the window (called "defenestration"). A lot more fighting followed, and for many years Bohemia was ruled by kings who lived in other countries.

Packed with tourists on a busy summer day in Malá Strana. (Lesser Quarter), Prague
St. Vitus Cathedral

From 1526 the Habsburg family ruled Bohemia. They were Catholics and ruled the Holy Roman Empire. In 1576 the Emperor Rudolph II moved the capital from Vienna to Prague. Prague became a rich town again, and people were free to worship as Catholics or Protestants. After Rudolph II there were a lot of religious fighting and more people were thrown out of windows. Eventually the fighting became part of the Thirty Years’ War. When Ferdinand II won the fighting a lot of Protestants left the country. New buildings in Prague were built in the Baroque style. The German language, not Czech, was spoken at court. Maria Theresa was the only queen to reign over Prague. One of her 16 children was Marie Antoinette who became queen of France. When her son Joseph II ruled, people stopped fighting about religion. The people were free to speak what they thought, and there was no more serfdom. Prague now had three parts: the Old Town, the Lesser Quarter and the New Town. Famous people such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart visited the town often.

In the 19th century industry came to Prague. Factories were built, a railway was built between Prague and Vienna. The Czech nationalist movement became very strong after 1848. They wanted to use their own language instead of German. The composers Smetana and Dvořák wrote music about their country, often using Czech folksongs. The National Theatre was opened in 1881.

In June 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg throne, was murdered. This led to World War I. After the war an independent republic called Czechoslovakia was formed with Prague as its capital. Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia were part of it. In 1938 Hitler invaded the country. It was liberated by Soviet troops in May 1945. However, the communists soon seized power and the country was ruled by communists who had to obey the Soviet Union. The prime minister Alexander Dubček gradually tried to make reforms. This period of time is called the "Prague Spring". In 1968 the Soviet Union sent tanks into Prague to Wenceslas Square to restore their power.

Democracy gradually came to Prague in 1989 when the Velvet Revolution happened. In 1993 the Czech Republic and Slovakia split into two countries. Today both these countries are part of the European Union.

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Прага
Afrikaans: Praag
Akan: Prague
Alemannisch: Prag
አማርኛ: ፕራግ
Ænglisc: Prag
العربية: براغ
aragonés: Praga
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܪܐܓ
asturianu: Praga
Avañe'ẽ: Praga
авар: Прага
azərbaycanca: Praqa
تۆرکجه: پراقا
বাংলা: প্রাগ
Bân-lâm-gú: Praha
башҡортса: Прага
беларуская: Прага
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Прага
Bikol Central: Prague
Bislama: Prague
български: Прага
Boarisch: Prag
བོད་ཡིག: པུ་ལ་ཁེ།
bosanski: Prag
brezhoneg: Praha
català: Praga
Чӑвашла: Прага
Cebuano: Praga
čeština: Praha
chiShona: Prague
corsu: Praga
Cymraeg: Prag
dansk: Prag
davvisámegiella: Praha
Deitsch: Prag
Deutsch: Prag
dolnoserbski: Praga
eesti: Praha
Ελληνικά: Πράγα
English: Prague
эрзянь: Прага ош
español: Praga
Esperanto: Prago
estremeñu: Praga
euskara: Praga
eʋegbe: Prague
فارسی: پراگ
Fiji Hindi: Prague
føroyskt: Prag
français: Prague
Frysk: Praach
Fulfulde: Prague
Gaeilge: Prág
Gaelg: Praag
Gagauz: Praga
Gàidhlig: Pràg
galego: Praga
گیلکی: پراگ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Praha
한국어: 프라하
Hausa: Prag
Հայերեն: Պրահա
हिन्दी: प्राग
hornjoserbsce: Praha
hrvatski: Prag
Ido: Praha
Ilokano: Prague
Bahasa Indonesia: Praha
interlingua: Praga
Interlingue: Praha
Ирон: Прагæ
isiZulu: IPraha
íslenska: Prag
italiano: Praga
עברית: פראג
Basa Jawa: Praha
kalaallisut: Praha
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪ್ರಾಗ್
Kapampangan: Prague
къарачай-малкъар: Прага
ქართული: პრაღა
kaszëbsczi: Praga
қазақша: Прага
kernowek: Praha
Kiswahili: Praha
коми: Прага
Kongo: Prague
Kreyòl ayisyen: Prag
kurdî: Prag
Кыргызча: Прага
Ladino: Praga
лезги: Прагьа
ລາວ: ປຣາກ
لۊری شومالی: پراگ
Latina: Praga
latviešu: Prāga
Lëtzebuergesch: Prag
lietuvių: Praha
Ligure: Praga
Limburgs: Praag
lingála: Prag
Livvinkarjala: Praga
la .lojban.: pragas
lumbaart: Praga
magyar: Prága
македонски: Прага
Malagasy: Prague
മലയാളം: പ്രാഗ്
Malti: Praga
Māori: Prague
मराठी: प्राग
მარგალური: პრაღა
مصرى: براج
مازِرونی: پراگ
Bahasa Melayu: Praha
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Prague
мокшень: Прага
монгол: Праг
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပရက်ဂ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Praha
Nederlands: Praag
Nedersaksies: Praag
नेपाली: प्राग
नेपाल भाषा: प्राग
日本語: プラハ
Napulitano: Praga
нохчийн: Прага
Nordfriisk: Prag
norsk: Praha
norsk nynorsk: Praha
Nouormand: Prague
occitan: Praga
олык марий: Прага
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Praga
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਰਾਗ
پنجابی: پراگ
Papiamentu: Praga
پښتو: پراگ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទីក្រុងប្រាក
Picard: Prague
Piemontèis: Praga
Plattdüütsch: Prag
polski: Praga
português: Praga
Qaraqalpaqsha: Praga
română: Praga
Romani: Praga
rumantsch: Prag
Runa Simi: Praha
русиньскый: Прага
русский: Прага
саха тыла: Прага
sardu: Praga
Scots: Prague
Seeltersk: Praag
shqip: Praga
sicilianu: Praga
سنڌي: پراگ
slovenčina: Praha
slovenščina: Praga
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Прага
ślůnski: Praga
کوردی: پراگ
српски / srpski: Праг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Prag
suomi: Praha
svenska: Prag
Tagalog: Praga
தமிழ்: பிராகா
tarandíne: Praghe
татарча/tatarça: Прага
ไทย: ปราก
тоҷикӣ: Прага
Türkçe: Prag
удмурт: Прага
українська: Прага
اردو: پراگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پراگا
vèneto: Praga
vepsän kel’: Prag
Tiếng Việt: Praha
Volapük: Praha
Võro: Praha
文言: 布拉格
Winaray: Praga
Wolof: Prag
吴语: 布拉格
ייִדיש: פראג
Yorùbá: Prague
粵語: 布拉格
Zazaki: Prag
žemaitėška: Praha
中文: 布拉格
Kabɩyɛ: Praagɩ